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Diabetic Dictionary
point system
a meal planning system that uses points to rate the caloric content of foods.
polydipsia (pah-lee-DIP-see-uh)
excessive thirst; may be a sign of diabetes.
polyphagia (pah-lee-FAY-jee-ah)
excessive hunger; may be a sign of diabetes.
polyuria (pah-lee-YOOR-ee-ah)
excessive urination; may be a sign of diabetes.
postprandial blood glucose (post-PRAN-dee-ul)
the blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after eating.
pre-diabetes
a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing Type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke. Other names for pre-diabetes are impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.
premixed insulin
a commercially produced combination of two different types of insulin. See 50/50 insulin and 70/30 insulin.
preprandial blood glucose (pree-PRAN-dee-ul)
the blood glucose level taken before eating.
prevalence
the number of people in a given group or population who are reported to have a disease.
proinsulin (proh-IN-suh-lin)
the substance made first in the pancreas and then broken into several pieces to become insulin.
proliferative retinopathy (pro-LIH-fur-ah-tiv REH-tih-NOP-uh-thee)
a condition in which fragile new blood vessels grow along the retina and in the vitreous humor of the eye.
prosthesis (prahs-THEE-sis)
a man-made substitute for a missing body part such as an arm or a leg.
protein (PRO-teen)
1. One of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk, dairy products, eggs, and dried beans. 2. Proteins are also used in the body for cell structure, hormones such as insulin, and other functions.
proteinuria (PRO-tee-NOOR-ee-uh)
the presence of protein in the urine, indicating that the kidneys are not working properly.
rapid-acting insulin
a type of insulin that starts to lower blood glucose within 5 to 10 minutes after injection and has its strongest effect 30 minutes to 3 hours after injection, depending on the type used. See aspart insulin and lispro insulin.
rebound hyperglycemia (HY-per-gly-SEE-mee-ah)
a swing to a high level of glucose in the blood after a low level. See Somogyi effect.
Recognized Diabetes Education Programs
diabetes self-management education programs that are approved by the American Diabetes Association.
regular insulin
short-acting insulin. On average, regular insulin starts to lower blood glucose within 30 minutes after injection. It has its strongest effect 2 to 5 hours after injection but keeps working 5 to 8 hours after injection. Also called R insulin.
renal (REE-nal)
having to do with the kidneys. A renal disease is a disease of the kidneys. Renal failure means the kidneys have stopped working.
renal threshold of glucose (THRESH-hold)
the blood glucose concentration at which the kidneys start to excrete glucose into the urine.
repaglinide (reh-PAG-lih-nide)
an oral medicine used to treat Type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called meglitinides. (Brand name: Prandin)
retina (REH-ti-nuh)
the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye.
risk factor
anything that raises the chances of a person developing a disease.
rosiglitazone (rose-ee-GLIH-tuh-zone)
an oral medicine used to treat Type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Avandia)
saccharin (SAK-ah-rin)
a sweetener with no calories and no nutritional value.
secondary diabetes
a type of diabetes caused by another disease or certain drugs or chemicals.
self-management
in diabetes, the ongoing process of managing diabetes. Includes meal planning, planned physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, taking diabetes medicines, handling episodes of illness and of low and high blood glucose, managing diabetes when traveling, and more. The person with diabetes designs his or her own self-management treatment plan in consultation with a variety of health care professionals such as doctors, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and others.
sharps container
a container for disposal of used needles and syringes; often made of hard plastic so that needles cannot poke through.
short-acting insulin
a type of insulin that starts to lower blood glucose within 30 minutes after injection and has its strongest effect 2 to 5 hours after injection. See regular insulin.
side effects
the unintended action(s) of a drug.
 
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